RFID proximity card reader is a device that is one of the most important elements of the proximity identification system, enabling the implementation of its functionality. In simple terms, the reader allows wireless reading (and / or writing) of data on a proximity card or transponder (ISO card, key ring, band, tag, label, tablet) equipped with an antenna and an integrated circuit with data memory.
Proximity transponders do not need to have their own power source for operation - they just need to be within the range of the electromagnetic field generated by the reader antenna, so their size, especially the thickness, can be negligible facilitating their use. Through the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction, a transponder close to the reader is activated by receiving and sending relevant data to / from the system.
Integral components of RFID proximity readers are:
- integrated circuit that provides support for encoding and decoding proximity standards such as MIFARE® (Classic, Plus, Ultralight, Ultralight C, DESFire, DESFire EV1, EV2), NFC, Unique/Q5, ICODE, HITAG, HID, LEGIC, FeLica, Calypso, CiPurse, UCODE and others
- microcontroller system enabling communication with the above-mentioned integrated circuit and achieving additional functionalities such as support for input / output communication interfaces such asUSB, I2C, SPI, RS232, RS485, WIEGAND, 1-Wire (Dallas DS1990), CAN 2.0B, additional memory for handling cards or events, data encryption and much more depending on the needs of the application,
- additional integrated elements extending functionality such as electromagnetic relays for controlling electric locks and electric locks, USB connector, SMA antenna connector,
- properly selected and tuned antenna for 125kHz, 13.56MHz or UHF,
- housing (not required),
- connectors (or pins for modules) of interfaces.
Proximity card readers can be stand-alone devices in the form desktop readers with USB interface or in the form of small sizes RFID modules facilitating their application in individual application projects, e.g. ticket readers in vehicles or public transport stations, terminals offering top-up subscriptions and many others.