Standard ISO/IEC 14443 is an international technical standard developed by International Organization for Standardization , which describes the operation of proximity cards and the protocol used to communicate with it.

This is the most popular RFID standard and is used in many wide-scale implementations, such as MIFARE® cards, the Calypso electronic ticket sales system, CiPurse, biometric passports, payment cards EMV (PayPass, PayWave, ExpressPay), German identity documents, etc. The standard uses the terms PCD (Proximity Coupling Device) and PICC (Proximity Integrated Circuit Card) to identify devices (readers) and transponders (cards).

The ISO/IEC 14443 standard consists of four parts, each of which describes a different aspect of the proximity card and its use:

  • Part 1: Physical properties
  • Part 2: Radio frequency power and signal interface
  • Part 3: Initialization and anti-collision
  • Part 4: Transmission protocol

The ISO / IEC 14443 standard specifies two types of cards, namely type A and type B. Both use the same 13.56MHz carrier frequency, but use different modulation and coding schemes.

Details of the RF interface are given in the table below:

from PCD to PICC
from PICC to PCD
ISO / IEC 14443-A
Frequency 13.56 MHz 847.5 kHz
modulation ASK 100% Load modulation
encoding Modified Miller OOK, Manchester
ISO / IEC 14443-B
Frequency 13.56 MHz 847.5 kHz
modulation ASK 10% Load modulation
encoding NRZ BPSK, NRZ-L
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